. Arise and Build!
The Physical Exhibit
The Keepsake
Footnotes


Footnotes
"The Conflagration and the Making of the 'New' University"



[1]. For background see: Patricia Sherwood and Joseph Michael Lasala, "Education and Architecture: The Evolution of the University of Virginia's Academical Village," in Richard Guy Wilson, ed., Thomas Jefferson's Academical Village: The Creation of an Architectural Masterpiece exhibition catalogue (Charlottesville: The Bayly Museum of the University of Virginia, 1993), pp. 9-45. For general background see Philip Alexander Bruce, History of the University of Virginia 1819-1919 (New York: The MacMillan Co. 1920-22), 5 vols.

[2]. Thomas Jefferson, rear of Drawing N-331, ca. March 1819, Jefferson Papers, Special Collections, Alderman Library, University of Virginia (hereafter cited as UVA).

[3]. Richmond Dispatch October 28, 1895, p. 1; The [Richmond] Times October 28, 1895, p.1; Norfolk Virginian, October 29, 1895, p.1; The Washington Post October 29, 1895, p. 1; New York Times October 28, 1895, p. 2.

[4]. Minutes of the General Faculty, 14 (September 15, 1894- June 15, 1899), p. 109, UVA.

[5]. Jefferson's Ideas on a University Library: Letters from the Founder of the University of Virginia to a Boston Bookseller ed. Elizabeth Cometti (Charlottesville: Tracy W. McGregor Library, 1950).

[6]. Harry Clemons, The University of Virginia Library 1825- 1950 (Charlottesville, University of Virginia Library, 1954), p. 5; William Harwood Peden, ed. 1828 Catalogue of the Library of the University of Virginia "University of Virginia Bibliography Series" No.6. (Charlottesville: Alderman Library of the University of Virginia, 1945).

[7]. Faculty Minutes, November 1, 1859 cited in Clemons, University of Virginia Library, p. 26.

[8]. Clemons, University of Virginia Library, pp. 50-51; Bruce, History, 2, p. 195.

[9]. Bruce, History, p. 4, 51.

[10]. Clemons, University of Virginia Library, pp. 51-52.

[11]. Faculty Minutes, 13 (June 9, 1893) p. 393. UVA

[12]. Clemons, University of Virginia Library, p. 26, 52; Bruce, History, 4, p. 253; and Faculty Minutes, 14 (June 9, 1894), UVA.

[13]. "Colleges in the United States," The American Almanac (Boston: Gray and Bowen 1830), pp. 226-227.

[14]. The figures for the various libraries comes from, Report of the Commissioner of Education for the Year 1895-96 (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1897), pp. 1976-1992. Of interest is that the University of Virginia (p.1992) is listed as containing 42,000 volumes. However, an article prepared by University Librarian, Frederick W. Page, "A Further Note on the Library," in Alumni Bulletin 2 (November 1895), pp. 101-103, gives the 56,733 figure. See also Clemons, University of Virginia Library, pp. 59-60.

[15]. Herbert Baxter Adams, Thomas Jefferson and the University of Virginia (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1888); and Jennings L. Wagoner, Jr. Thomas Jefferson and the Education of a New Nation (Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation, 1976), p.34.

[16]. John Hammond Moore "That `Commodious' Annex to Jefferson's Rotunda," Virginia Cavalcade 29 (Autumn 1979), pp. 114-123.

[17]. Jefferson to Governor W. C. Nicholas, April 2, 1816; reprinted in Roy J. Honeywell, The Educational Work of Thomas Jefferson (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1931), p. 231.

[18]. John Kevan Peebles, "Thomas Jefferson, Architect, Alumni Bulletin [University of Virginia], 1 (November 1894), pp.68-74; reprinted in American Architect and Building News 47 (January 19, 1895), pp. 29-30. There is much misinformation on Peebles, his correct dates are 1866- 1934; I a.m. indebted to David A. Dashiell, III, on this issue.

[19]. Minutes of the General Faculty, 14 (October 31, 1895), pp. 107-111, UVA; and Omer Allan Gianniny, Jr., "The Rotunda that was not Built: Mr. Jefferson's Pet Cast in Iron," The Magazine of Albemarle County History 40 (1982), 63-88.

[20]. Faculty Minutes, 14 (November 20, 1895), p. 122, UVA.

[21]. College Topics 7 (November 9, 1895),p.2.

[22]. Board of Visitors Minutes, VII (1895-1903), p. 57, UVA.

[23]. "IT Must Be Rebuilt," Richmond Dispatch, October 30, 1895, 1.

[24]. Bruce, History, 4, p. 273; Acts and Joint Resolutions of the General Assembly of the State of Virginia, 1895-96 (Richmond: J. H. O'Bannon, 1896), p. 159.

[25]. Gianniny, "The Rotunda that was not Built", 63-88.

[26]. Letter, Armistead C. Gordon, Ca. January 1896, UVA.

[27]. W. C. N. Randolph to Stanford White, January 18, 1896, The New-York Historical Society.

[28]. See below for bibliography. An indication of their prominence is their profile in the opening number of "Great American Architects," a book length publication; see, Russell Sturgis "The Work of McKim, Mead& White" Architectural Record "Great American Architect Series," May 1895.

[29]. Charles McKim to William M. Thornton, August 6, 1890, McKim, Mead & White Collection, The New-York Historical Society; and McKim to Augustus Saint-Gaudens, May 6, 1895, McKim Collection, Library of Congress. See also, Richard Guy Wilson, McKim, Mead & White, Architects (New York: Rizzoli, 1983); Leland Roth, McKim, Mead & White, Architects (New York: Harper, 1983); Charles Baldwin, Stanford White (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1939); Paul Baker, Stanny: The Gilded Life of Stanford White (New York: Free Press, 1989); and David Garrard Lowe, Stanford White's New York (New York: Doubleday, 1992). For pictorial coverage see A Monograph of the Works of McKim, Mead & White, 1879-1915 (1915-1920), reprinted as The Architecture of McKim, Mead & White, editor, R. G. Wilson (New York: Dover, 1990). For background see: Richard Guy Wilson, Dianne Pilgrim, and Richard Murray, The American Renaissance 1876-1917 (Brooklyn and New York: Brooklyn Museum and Pantheon Press, 1979).

[30]. William R. Mead to Dr. A. H. Buckmaster, November 5, 1895, Proctor's Papers, UVA

[31]. Mead to Buckmaster, November 18, 1895, UVA

[32]. White to Coleman, November 8, 1895, S. White Letterbook, 14, 255, Avery Library, Columbia University

[33]. "I recall my father telling me of a trip he took from Norfolk to Charlottesville very soon after the fire to persuade the University authorities to give these commissions to White." Bernard M. Peebles, John Kevan Peebles: A Centenary Scrapbook, typescript, n.p. UVA

[34]. William M. Thornton to S. White, January 18, 1895, UVA.

[35]. S. White to Theodore N. Ely, Feb. 8, 1897, and White to Bowers Lee, Nov. 1, 1898, S. White Letterbook, 17, p.341; and 21, p. 44, Columbia University.

[36]. The Guastavino vaulting can be observed in the present Music Library. See, George R. Collins, "The Transfer of Thin Masonry Vaulting from Spain to America," Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 27 (1968), pp.176-201.

[37]. S. White to William Thornton, Feb. 26, 1896, UVA

[38]. Bruce, History, 4, p. 270, 277.

[39]. On Randolph see: George Green Shackelford, "Two Victorian Rectors of the University of Virginia," The Magazine of Albemarle County History 40 (1982), pp. 45-62.

[40]. [Stanford White] "Notes on the University of Virginia," typescript, ca. 1897, The New-York Historical Society. Slightly rewritten, this was published as Stanford White, "The Buildings of the University of Virginia," Corks & Curls, 11 (1898), pp. 127-130.

[41]. S. White to Thornton, February 26, 1896, UVA.

[42]. [Stanford White] "Notes on the University of Virginia," typescript, ca. February 1896, The New-York Historical Society.

[43]. Faculty Minutes, 14 (March 11, 1896) p. 154; Board of Visitors Minutes, 7 (March 13, 1896) p. 75.

[44]. Randolph to White, Thornton to White, January 18, 1896, UVA; and White to Thornton, and White to Randolph, January 22, 1896, The New-York Historical Society.

[45]. H. Van Buren Magonigle, "A Half Century of Architecture 3," Pencil Points 15 (March 1934), 117.

[46]. White to Skinner, November 11, 1896, The New-York Historical Society.

[47]. Edward Simmons, From Seven to Seventy (New York: Harper, 1922), p. 241.

[48]. White to Thornton, February 26, 1896. UVA

[49]. [White] "Notes on the University of Virginia," New-York Historical Society.

[50]. [White] "Notes on the University of Virginia" New-York Historical Society.

[51]. McKim, Mead & White, "Report of the Architects to the Building Committee, March 20, 1895,"Alumni Bulletin of the University of Virginia, 2 (February 1896), p. 139 (The actual date of the report was 1896, but the editors of the Alumni Bulletin both mis-dated it and did not publish until late in 1896).

[52]. White to Thornton, February 29, 1895, UVA.

[53]. White to Robert Robertson [University's Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds], July 20, 1896, UVA.

[54]. Anna Barringer quoted in: Virginius Dabney, Mr. Jefferson's University, A History (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1981), p.41.

[55]. Armistead C. Gordon to Skinner, August 21, 1897, The New-York Historical Society; and Bruce, History, 4, p. 279.

[56]. C. McKim to Frederick Crowninshield, June 2, 1896, McKim Letterbook, 5, p. 47, Library of Congress; and S. White to Frederick MacMonnies, August 1, 1896, White Letterbook, 15, p. 296. Avery Library;

[57]. Bruce, History, 4, p. 280.

[58]. Skinner to McKim, Mead & White, September 20, 1897, New-York Historical Society.

[59]. Bruce, History, 4, pp. 277-78; Board of Visitors Minutes, 7 March 18, 1898, p.245, 267-68.

[60]. James Coolidge Carter, The University of Virginia: Jefferson its Father and his Political Philosophy (Cleveland: Imperial Press, 1898). See the Richmond Times June 7, 1898, 8; June 12, 1898, 6; June 14, 1898, 1; June 15, 1898, 1.

[61]. Suggested by Omer Allan Gianniny.

[62].Richard Guy Wilson, "Monument Avenue, Richmond, Virginia," in The Grand American Avenue ed. J. Cigliano and S. Landau (San Francisco, Pomegranate Artbooks, 1994), 259-279.

[63]. John S. Patton, Jefferson, Cabell and the University of Virginia (New York: The Neale Publishing Co., 1906), pp. 288-89; and Bruce, History, 4, p. 276.

[64]. Montgomery Schuyler, "A History of Old Colonial Architecture," Architectural Record 4 (January-March 1911), pp. 69-79.

[65]. Paul B. Barringer, ed., University of Virginia (New York: Lewis Pub. Co., 1904), I, p. 249; and William Rotch Ware, ed. The Georgian Period (New York: The American Architect, 1908), I, p. 23.

[66]. Alderman to McKim, Mead & White, May 1, 1906, The New-York Historical Society.

[67]. Alderman from an article of 1894 quoted in Dumas Malone, Edwin A. Alderman: A Biography (New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1940), 60.

[68]. Clemons, University of Virginia Library, pp. 64-65, 86- 87.

[69]. Joseph Lee Vaughn and Omer Allan Gianniny, Jr., Thomas Jefferson's Rotunda Restored 1973-76 (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1981).

[70]. Richard Guy Wilson, "Jefferson's Lawn: Perceptions, Interpretations, Meanings," in Wilson ed., Thomas Jefferson's Academical Village, pp. 47- 73.